Nils Mülling


Infectious diseases are a major threat in the treatment of immunosuppressed patients, e.g. after organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive agents used in the field of kidney transplantation lead to a marked attenuation of lymphocyte functions. Due to the impaired function of T cells, kidney transplant recipients often suffer from Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation, potentially leading to development of disease. To avoid such complications, patients are frequently given prophylactic treatment with Valganciclovir, which can also lead to side effects like severe leukopenia. At the moment, the decision to initiate prophylaxis is carried out by the CMV-specific serological status of donor and recipient. However, it is known that cellular immunity is crucial in controlling CMV.

Our study focuses on in-depth profiling of CMV-specific T cells in kidney transplant recipients. My research involves in vitro studies on the phenotype, functional profile and metabolism of CMV-specific T cells. Our findings could contribute to a more individual approach of antiviral prophylaxis in kidney transplant recipients.



I studied Medicine at the University Hospital Essen in Germany. In the fall of 2017 I began my specialist training in Internal Medicine at the Department of Nephrology at the University Hospital Essen under the direction of Prof.dr. Andreas Kribben. I defended my doctoral thesis on a clinical study on patients awaiting kidney transplantation in 2019. In addition to my clinical practice, I worked on studies on the immune responses of immunosuppressed patients to vaccinations and infectious diseases. In 2021 I was given the opportunity to join Ramon Arens` research group by a grant of the Dr. Werner-Jackstädt Foundation. 




  • Low efficacy of vaccination against serogroup B meningococci in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome

    Mülling N, Rohn H, Vogel U, Claus H, Wilde B, Eisenberger U, Kribben A, Witzke O, Gäckler A.

    Biosci Rep. 2020 Mar 27;40(3):BSR20200177

  • Effect of Regional Citrate Anticoagulation vs Systemic Heparin Anticoagulation During Continuous Kidney Replacement Therapy on Dialysis Filter Life Span and Mortality Among Critically Ill Patients With Acute Kidney Injury: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Zarbock A, Küllmar M, Kindgen-Milles D, Wempe C, Gerss J, Brandenburger T, Dimski T, Tyczynski B, Jahn M, Mülling N, Mehrländer M, et al.

    JAMA. 2020 Oct 27;324(16):1629-1639.

  • Sex-Specific Differences in HLA Antibodies after Pneumococcal Vaccination in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Lindemann M, Oesterreich S, Wilde B, Eisenberger U, Muelling N, Horn PA, Heinemann FM, Witzke O.

    Vaccines (Basel). 2019 Aug 6;7(3):84.

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